We are not makers of history. We are made by history.

(Martin Luther King Jr.)

Saruq Al-Hadid

Historical Battles

Battle of Kadesh (1274 BC)

Kingdom of Egypt led by Ramesses II defeated Hittite Empire led by Muwatalli II.

Battle of Pelusium (525 BC)

Achaemenid Empire led by Cambyses II defeated Kingdom of Egypt led by Psamtik III.

Battle of Marathon (490 BC)

Athens led by Miltiades defeated Persian Empire led by Darius I.

Battle of Issus (333 BC)

Hellenic League led by Alexander the Great defeated Achaemenid Empire led by Darius III.

Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC)

Hellenic League led by Alexander the Great defeated Achaemenid Empire led by Darius III.

Battle of the Metaurus (207 BC)

Roman Republic led by Marcus Livius Salinator defeated Carthage led by Hasdrubal Barca.

Battle of Carthage (149 BC)

Roman Republic led by Scipio Aemilianus Salinator defeated Carthage led by Hasdrubal the Boetharch.

Battle of Edessa (260 AD)

Sasanian Empire led by Shapur I defeated Roman Empire led by Valerian.

Battle of Emesa (272 AD)

Roman Empire led by Aurelian defeated Palmyrene Empire led by Zenobia.

Battle of Ctesiphon (363 AD)

Byzantine Empire led by Julian defeated Sassanid Empire led by Shapur II.

Sack of Rome (410 AD)

Visigoths led by Alaric I defeated Western Roman Empire led by Honorius.

Battle of Badr (624 AD)

Muslims of Medina led by Prophet Muhammad defeated Quraish of Mecca.

Battle of Nineveh (627 AD)

Byzantine Empire led by Heraclius defeated Sassanid Empire led by Rhahzadh.

Battle of Yarmouk (636 AD)

Rashidun Caliphate led by Khalid ibn alWalid defeated Byzantine Empire led by Theodore Trithyrius.

Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (636 AD)

Rashidun Caliphate led by Saad ibn Abi Waqqas defeated Sasanid Empire led by Rostam Farrokhzād.

Battle of Nahāvand (642 AD)

Rashidun Caliphate led by Saad ibn Abi Waqqas defeated Sasanid Empire led by Piruz Khosrow.

Battle of Guadalete (711 AD)

Umayyad Caliphate led by Tariq ibn Ziyad defeated Visigothic Kingdom led by Roderic.

Battle of Tours (732 AD)

Kingdom of the Franks led by Charles Martel defeated Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi.

Battle of the Zab (750 AD)

Abbasid Caliphate led by Abdallah ibn Ali defeated Umayyad Caliphate led by Marwan ibn Muhammad.

Battle of Talas (751 AD)

Abbasid Caliphate led by Ziyad ibn Salih defeated Tang Dynasty led by Gao Xianzhi.

Battle of Marash (953 AD)

Hamdanid Emirate of Aleppo led by Sayf al-Dawla defeated Byzantine Empire led by Bardas Phokas.

Battle of Hastings (1066 AD)

Normans led by William of Normandy defeated English led by Harold Godwinson.

Battle of Manzikert (1071 AD)

Seljuk Empire led by Alp Arslan defeated Byzantine Empire led by Romanos IV.

Battle of Hattin (1187 AD)

Ayyubids led by Saladin defeated Crusader States led by Guy of Lusignan.

Battle of Köse Dağ (1243 AD)

Mongol Empire led by Baiju defeated Sultanate of Rum led by Kaykhusraw II.

Battle of Baghdad (1258 AD)

Mongol Empire led by Hulagu Khan defeated Abbasid Caliphate led by Al-Musta’sim.

Battle of Ain Jalut (1260 AD)

Mamluk Sultanate led by Qutuz defeated Mongol Empire led by Kitbuqa.

Fall of Constantinople (1453 AD)

Ottoman Empire led by Mehmed the Conqueror defeated Byzantine Empire led by Constantine XI.

Battle of Marj Dabiq (1516 AD)

Ottoman Empire led by Selim I defeated Mamluk Sultanate led by Qansuh Al-Ghuri.

Battle of Ridaniya (1517 AD)

Ottoman Empire led by Selim I defeated Mamluk Sultanate led by Tuman bay II.

Battle of Blenheim (1704 AD)

Kingdom of England led Duke of Marlborough defeats French and Bavarian forces.

Battle of Poltava (1709 AD)

Tsardom of Russia led by Peter I defeated Swedish Empire led by Charles XII.

Battle of Trafalgar (1805 AD)

United Kingdom led by Horatio Nelson defeated French Empire led Pierre-Charles Villeneuve.

Battle of Waterloo (1815 AD)

Duke of Wellington and Prussians, Dutch and German forces defeated French Empire led by Napoleon.

Battle of Konya (1832 AD)

Egypt Eyalet led by Ibrahim Pasha defeated Ottoman Empire led by Reşid Mehmed Pasha.

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Archaeological Events

  • 19th International Conference of Classical Archaeology
    • 22 May - Albertus-Magnus-Platz (Cologne-Germany)
  • Diversity and Uniformity in the Archaic Greek World
    • 23 May - Hanover Inn (Hanover-USA)
  • Virtual Archaeology
    • 28 May - Hermitage Museum (Saint Petersburg-Russia)